Sponsored

Sponsored

gateway

Sponsored

Sponsored

Sponsored

Sponsored

Sponsored

Sponsored

Sponsored



Health Indicators in India....


 

Public Health is one of the best reflection of Human Development in a country. India is one of those counrty where the spending on Public Health in proportion to percentage of GDP is one of the lowest in world. In this article we have covered the following indicators:

  1. Infant Mortality Rate
  2. Maternal Mortality Rate
  3. Under Five Mortality Rate
  4. Institutional deliveries
  5. Life Expectancy at Birth

Infant Mortality Rate

Infant Mortality Rate means number of infant (below one year deaths) per 1000 live births. Infant Mortality Rate which was 50 in 2009 and 47 in 2010 has declined to 44 as per the Sample Registration System (SRS) Bulletin, 2012. However, there are again variations all over country. For rural areas, the figure is 48 while for the urban areas it is 29.

In the bigger states, Kerala has the best rate of 12 while Madhya Pradesh is the worst with IMR of 59.  IMR is one of the indicators for the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and a target of 28 has been set by the year 2015. As per MDG Report, 2011, though IMR for the country as a whole declined by 30 points (rural IMR by 31 points vis-à-vis urban IMR by 16 points) in the last 20 years at an annual average decline of 1.5 points, it declined by three points between  2008 and 2009. With the present improved trend due to sharp fall during 2008-09, the national level estimate of IMR is likely to be 45.04 which is short of the target.

Under Five Mortality Rate

Under Five Mortality Rate means number of children who died before attaining five years of age. As per data provided by the Census in SRS bulletin, 2011, Under Fiver Mortality Rate in 2009 was 64 and showed an improvement of 5 points over 69 of 2008. This is monitored as one of the indicators of MDG and a target of 28 has set for 2015. As per MDG Report, 2011, India is expected to reach the figure of 54 and likely to miss the target.

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) and Institutional Deliveries

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) means the number of women aged 15-49, who die due to any cause relating to pregnancy during pregnancy or child birth or within 42 days relating to pregnancy per 100,000 live births. MMR has reduced from 254 per 100000 live births in 2004-06 to 212 per 100000 live births in 2007-09 (SRS), a reduction of 42 points over a three year period or 14 points per year on an average.

Maternal Mortality Ratio is also being monitored under Millennium Development Goals as per which MMR has to be reduced to 109. As per MDG Report, 2011, expected figure to be reached by 2015 is 139, thus falling short of the target, though sharper decline of 16% during 2003-06 and 17% during 2006-09 can be considered to matter of some relief. As regard the institutional deliveries, the rate of increase in coverage of institutional deliveries in India is rather slow. It increased from 26% in 1992-93 to 47% in 2007-08. As a result, the coverage of deliveries by skilled personnel has also increased almost similarly by 19 percentage points from 33% to 52% during the same period.  With the existing rate of increase in deliveries by skilled personnel, the likely achievement for2015 is only to 62%, which is far short of the targeted universal coverage

Life Expectancy at birth

Life expectancy at birth means the age up to which a new born is expected to live. As per data made available by SRS Bulletin, life expectancy has considerable improved from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 66.1 years in 2006-10. However, this is quite less in comparison to the developed countries while life expectancy is usually above 80. Life expectancy is not uniform and there are variations between male and female, rural and urban and also in various states. Details of time wise life expectancy for male, female, rural and urban people are given below. 

 

Expectation of life at birth by sex and residence, India*, 1970-75 to 2006-10

Period

Mid-

 

Total

 

 

 

Rural

 

 

 

Urban

 

 

Year

Total

Male

Female

 

Total

Male

Female

 

Total

Male

Female

1970-75

1973

49.7

50.5

49.0

 

48.0

48.9

47.1

 

58.9

58.8

59.2

1976-80

1978

52.3

52.5

52.1

 

50.6

51.0

50.3

 

60.1

59.6

60.8

1981-85

1983

55.4

55.4

55.7

 

53.7

54.0

53.6

 

62.8

61.6

64.1

1986-90

1988

57.7

57.7

58.1

 

56.1

56.1

56.2

 

63.4

62.0

64.9

1987-91

1989

58.3

58.1

58.6

 

56.8

56.7

56.9

 

63.8

62.3

65.3

1988-92

1990

58.7

58.6

59.0

 

57.4

57.2

57.4

 

64.1

62.8

65.5

1989-93

1991

59.4

59.0

59.7

 

58.0

57.9

58.1

 

64.9

63.5

66.3

1990-94

1992

60.0

59.4

60.4

 

58.6

58.2

58.7

 

65.4

64.1

66.7

1991-95

1993

60.3

59.7

60.9

 

58.9

58.5

59.3

 

65.9

64.5

67.3

1992-96

1994

60.7

60.1

61.4

 

59.4

58.9

59.8

 

66.3

64.9

67.7

1993-97

1995

61.1

60.4

61.8

 

59.9

59.3

60.2

 

66.6

65.1

68.0

1994-98

1996

61.4

60.6

62.2

 

60.1

59.5

60.5

 

66.8

65.3

68.2

1995-99#

1997

61.5

60.8

62.3

 

60.3

59.7

60.9

 

66.4

65.1

67.9

1996-00#

1998

61.9

61.2

62.7

 

60.7

60.1

61.3

 

66.7

65.4

68.3

1997-01#

1999

62.3

61.4

63.3

 

61.1

60.3

61.9

 

67.1

65.7

68.7

1998-02

2000

62.9

61.9

64.0

 

61.6

60.7

62.5

 

67.6

66.1

69.2

1999-03

2001

63.4

62.3

64.6

 

62.2

61.1

63.2

 

68.0

66.5

69.7

2000-04

2002

63.9

62.8

65.2

 

62.7

61.6

63.8

 

68.4

66.9

70.0

2001-05

2003

64.3

63.1

65.6

 

63.0

61.9

64.2

 

68.6

67.2

70.3

2002-06

2004

64.7

63.5

66.1

 

63.5

62.3

64.7

 

68.9

67.4

70.6

2003-07

2005

65.0

63.7

66.5

 

63.8

62.6

65.2

 

69.0

67.5

70.7

2004-08

2006

65.4

64.0

66.9

 

64.2

62.9

65.7

 

69.0

67.5

70.8

2005-09

2007

65.7

64.3

67.2

 

64.5

63.2

66.0

 

69.2

67.6

71.0

2006-10

2008

66.1

64.6

67.7

 

64.9

63.5

66.5

 

69.6

68.0

71.4

 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh

Share this on facebook

Other Related Topics

Resources

National and Political Issues

Indian Economics

Current  Affairs

General Knowledge

About Indian History 

News and Events

Polity and Constitution 

International Relations

Maths and Aptitude

Exams

IAS Exam

MBA

SSC

NDA

CDS

Bank PO/IBPS

     

Register with Us! Get Updates about Exam and Free Study material in your email Inbox. (Click here to Register with Us)

If you have doubts, discuss them with our Expert Team and members (Click Here)

 

Like Us on Facebook!  Get updates about Exams, Tests and Study Material on your Wall. 

home || Display National issues || Health Indicators in India
JTS Institute Banglore JTS Institute