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Governors during British Rule in India


 

Governors-General of Fort William (1773-1833)

Name with Period

Political Events

Administrative Developments

Socio-Economic & Cultural Events

Miscellaneous

Warren Hastings      (1773-85)

Rohilla war (1774) and annexation of Rohikhand by Nawab of Oudh with help of British: First Maratha war (1775-82) and Treaty of Salbai (1782); Second Mysore war and Treaty of Mangalore (1780-84) (First War, 1966-69).

Regulating Act of 1773; Act of 1781 (it made a clear demarcation between jurisdiction of Governor General-in-Council and that of Supreme Court at Calcutta); Pitt’s India Act of 1784.

Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal by Hastings and Sir William Jones (1784).

Nand Kumar (1775), Chait Singh (1778) and Begams of Oudh (1782) episodes. Attempt to impeach him did not succeed.

 

 

Cornwallis

(1786-93)

Third Mysore War (1790-92) and Treaty of Seringapatam (1792).

Reform of judiciary (1793)-setting up courts at different levels and separation of revenue and judicial administrations; Introduction of Covenanted civil service and reforms to purify and improve administration.

Introduction of Permanent settlement or Zamindari system in Bengal and Bihar (1793).

Accession of Ranjit Singh to the throne (1792).

John Shore

(1793-98)

His rule was mostly uneventful.

Renewal of Company’s charter by Charter Act of 1793.

Implementation of Permanent settlement (1793).

Death of Mahadji Sindhia, Ahalbai and Peshwa (1794-96).

Wellesley

(1798-1805)

Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance (1798) and first Subsidiary Treaty with Nizam of Hyderabad (1798); Fourth Mysore War (1799) and annexation of parts of Mysore; Treaty of Bassein (1802) and Second Maratha War (1803-05).

Formation of Madras Presidency after annexation of kingdoms of Tanjore and Carnatic.

Establishment of Baptist Mission at Serampore by William Carey.

Death of Nana Phadnis (1800); Recall of Wellesley, Cornwallis’ 2nd term and his sudden death.

 

Minto I

(1807-13)

Vellore Mutiny (1806) during George Barlow’s officiating period (1805-07); Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh 

(1809).

Charter Act of 1813 and ending of Company’s trade monopoly, expect in tea and trade with China.

Allotment of one lakh rupees annually for education (1813).

English missions to Persia and Kabul (1808).

Hastings

(1813-23)

War with or Gorkha War and Treaty of Sagauli (1814-16); Pindari and Third Maratha Wars (1817-1818); Alliances with Rajput States (1819).

Abolition of Peshwaship and annexation of all his territories, and creation of Bombay Presidency (1818).

Introduction of ryotwari/settlement in Madras Presidency by Thomas Munro (1820).

__

 

Amherst

(1823-28)

First Burmese War and Treaty of Yandabo (1824-26); Capture of Bharatpur (1826).

Annexation of administration of Assam, Arakan and Tennasserim (1826).

__

 

The Enterprise, a steamship, reached Madras (1827).

William Bentick

(1828-33)

Annexation of Cacher (1830) and Jaintia (1832); Meeting between Bentinck and Ranjit Singh (1831).

Deposition of Raja of Mysore and assumption of its administration (1831).

Prohibition of sati (1829); Suppression of thuggee (1829-35).

Visit of Rammohan Roy to England (1830) and his death there (1833).

 

 

 

Governor General of India (1833 to 1858)

 

Name with Period

Political Events

Administrative Developments

Socio-Economic & Cultural Events

Miscellaneous

 

William Bentinck (1833-35)

Annexation of Coorg (1834).

Charter Act of 1833; Formulation of Agra Province (1834); Abolition of Provincial Courts of Appeal and Circuit, and appointment of commissioners instead.

Macaulay’s Minutes and introduction of English as medium of instruction (1835).

Foundation of Calcutta Medical College (1835).

Auckland

(1835-42)

First Afghan War (1836-42) –Disaster of British in war and recall of Aucland.

New Treaty with Amirs of Sind (1839).

Famine in North India (1837-38).

Death of Ranjit Singh (1839).

Elienborough

(1842-44)

Termination of first Afghan war (1842); Conqest of Sind (1843); War with Gwalior (1843).

 

Suppression of Slavery (1843).

 

 

Hardinge I

(1844-48)

First Sikh war (1845-46) and treaty of Lahore (1846).

 

Prohibition of female infanticide, suppression of human sacrifice.

 

Dalhousie

(1848-56)

Second Sikh war (1848-49) and annexation of Punjab; Second Burmese war (1852) and annexation of Pegu (Lower Burma); Annexation of several states through Doctrine of Lapse; Annexation of Oudh (1856); Santhal uprising (1855-56).

Charter Act of 1853; Entrance into Civil Services thrown open to competition; Wood’s
Education Despatch of 1854 and British assumption of responsibility of educating masses; Establishment of separate Public Works Departments in provinces.

Indian Universities, Religious Disabilities, and Hindu Widow Remarriage Acts (1856).

Introduction of Railways (First train – Bombay to Thana). Telegraph (First line-Calcutta to Agra) and Postal System in  1853).

Canning

(1856-57)

Persian War (1856); Revolt of 1857.

General Service Enlistment Order (1856).

Universities of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in 1857.

 

 

Viceroy's of India (1858 to 1947)

 

Name of Period

Political Events

Administrative Developments

Socio-Economic & Cultural Events

Miscellaneous

Canning

(1858-62)

White Mutiny’s by Europeans in British Indian Army (1859); Issue of 160 sanads to native rulers, permitting them to adopt heirs (1859-60).

Queen Victoria Proclamation and Govt of India Act of 1858; Enactment of Indian Penal Code (1860) and Code of Criminal Procedure (1861); Civil Service Act (1861); High Courts Act of 1861.

Indigo Agitation of Bengal (1859-60); Famine in NW India (1861).

After new Viceroy, Elgin’s  sudden death, administration was carried on by Napier and Dension form 1862 to 1864).

John Lawrence

1864-69)

War with Bhutan
(1865).

Functioning of High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras (1865).

Orissa Famine (1865-67).

Telegraphic connection  with England (1865).

Mayo

(1869-72)

Visit of the Duke of Edinborough (1869).

Beginning of separation of central and provincial finances (1870); Organization of Statistical of Department of Agriculture and Commerce; Beginning of system of State Railways.

Establishment of two colleges for education and political training of Indian Princes – Rajkot college in Kathiawar and Mayo college at Ajmer in Rajasthan.

His assassination by a convict in Andamans in 1872).

North Brook

(1872-76)

Deposition of Malhar Rao Gaekwad; Visit of Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) to India (1875).

 

Famine in Bihar (1873-74); Deccan Riots of 1875.

His resignation over afghan qestion.

 

Lytton

(1876-80)

Second Afghan War of (1878-80).

Royal Titles Act of 1876 and assumption of title of Empress of India’ by Queen Victoria; Delhi-Durbar (1877); Appointment of first Famine Commission under Strachey (1878).

Famine in Deccan (1876); Vernacular Press Act and Arms Act of 1878.

 

Ripon

(1880-84)

Restoration of Mysore to its ruler (1831).

First Factory Act of 1881; First Census in India (1881) – 254 millions; Local Self-Government Act (1882); Division of Central finances (1882); Ilbert Bill Controversy (1883): Famine Code (1883).

Repeal of Vernacular Press Act (1882); Appointment of Hunter Commission of Education (1882).

 

Dufferin

(1884-88)

Third Burmese war (1885-86); Foundation of Congress (Cross was then Secretary of State).

Annexation and administration of Upper Burma (1886).

 

 

Lansdowne

(1888-94)

Appointment of Durand Commission and its definition of Durand Line between British India and Afghanistan in 1893).

Factory Act of 1891; Division of Civil Services into imperial, Provincial and Subordinate, Indian Councils Act of 1892.

Age of Consent Act (1891); Vivekananda’s visit to USA (1893).

Manipur Revolt and British intervention (1891).

Elgin II

(1894-99)

Assassination of two Britain officials by Chapekar brothers of Poona in 1897.

Appointment of second Famine Commission under Lyall (1898).

All – India Famine of 1896-97.

Plague in Bombay (1896-1900).

Curzon

(1899-1905)

Coronation of king Edward VII (1901); Col. Young-husband’s Expending to Tibet (1903-04); Partition of Bengal (1905).

Creation of NWF Province (1901); Ancient Monuments Preservation Act of 1904; Establishment of an Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa in Delhi.

Raleigh Commission (1902) and Indian Universities Act of 1904 based on its recommendations.

Cooperative Societies Act (1904).

Minto II

(1905-10)

Anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movements; Foundation of Muslim League (1906); Calcutta session and Naoroji’s declaration of swaraj (1906); Surat session and split in Congress (1907).

India Councils Act of 1909; Appointment of SP Sinha as 1st Indian member of Viceroy’s Executive Council.

Newspapers Act of 1908

Beginning of the first wave of revolutionary terrorism.

 

Hardinge II

(1910-16)

Coronation Durbar of King George V and Queen Mary at Delhi (1911); Return of Gandhi to India (1915); Foundation of Hindu Mahasabha (1915) by Madan Mohan Malviya and some Punjabi leaders.

Annulment of partition of Bengal and creation of a Governorship for Bengal (1911). Lt Governorship for Bihar & Orissa, & Chief Commissionership for Assam; Transfer of capital to Delhi (1911); Defence of India Act (1915).

Nobel Prize (1912) in Literature (Gitanjali) and Knighthood (1915) for Rabindranath Tagore.

Bomb attack on Viceroy in Delhi (1912); Death of. Gokhale in 1915.

Chelmsford

(1916-21)

Lucknow reunion of Congress; Lucknow Pact between Congress and League (1916); Foundation of Sabarmati ashram (1916); Champaran (1917), Ahmadabad and Khaira Satyagrahas (1918); Resignation of SN Banerji from Congress and foundation of Indian Liberal Federation (1918); Khilafat Committee and Movement (1919-20); Nagpur session (1920) and changes in Congress constitution; Non-cooperation Movements (1920-22).

Foundation of separate Home Rule Leagues by Tilak and Annie Besant (1916); Montague’s August Declaration (1917) and Govt of India Act of 1919; Rowlatt Act (1919) and Jalianwalla Bagh Massaacre (13th April, 1919).

Sadler Commission on Education (1916); Foundation of Women’s University at Poona (1916).

Death of Tilak (1920); Appointment of SP Sinha as Lieutenant Governor of Bihar. He was first Indian to become a Governor and second Indian to become a member of British Parliament, first being Dadabhai Naoroji.

 

Reading

(1921-26)

Chauri Chaura incident (Feb 5, 1922) and withdrawal of Non-cooperation Movement by Gandhi; Formation of Swaraj Party by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru in December 1922; Foundation of Communist Party of India (1925).

Esta. Of Chamber of Princes (1921); Repeal of Rowlatt Act; Holding of simultaneous examinations for ICS in England and India from 1923; Beginning of Indiansation of officer’s cadre of India army.

Moplay Revolt (1921); Foundation of RSS by KB Hedgewar at Nagpur in 1925.

Death of Deshbandu  CR Das (1925).

Irwin

(1926-31) (Known as ‘Christian Viceroy’)

Appointment of Harcourt Butler Commission in Nov. 1927 (meant to improve relations between Indian states and Central Govt.); and convening of All India States People’s Conference in Dec. 1927 by states’ people; Lahore session of Congress (Dec. 1929) and Poorna Swaraj resolution; Fixing 26th Jan. 1930 as first Independence Day; Launching of Civil Disobedience Movement by Gandhi with his Dandi March (1930); boycott of 1st session of Round Table Conference by Congress; Gandhi – Irwin Pact and suspension of movement (March 1931).s

Appointment of Simon Commission (Nov. 1927) and boycott by Congress; Convening of an All Parties Conference and appointment of Motilal Nehru committee to prepare a constitution for India; Committee’s submission of ‘Nehru Report’ in August, 1928; rejection of report by Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, etc.; ‘Deepavali Declaration’ by Irwin (1929) that India would be granted dominion status in due course.

Devaluation of the Rupee (1926); Hartog Committee Report on Education (1928-29).

Meeting of First All India Youth Congress in December, 1928.

Wellingdon

(1931-36)

Participation of Gandhi in 2nd session of Round Table Conference (Sep. 1931) and failure of conference; return of Gandhi to India and resumption of movement; Gandhi’s imprisonment (final suspension of movement in May, 1934); 3rd session of Conference in London (1932) without representation of Congress; Foundation of Congress Socialist Party by Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan (1934); Birth of All India Kisan Sabha (1936).

Announcement of ‘Communal Award’ by Ramsay Macdonald, British P.M. (1932); Gandhi’s fast unto death I Yeravadi prison Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar (Sept. 1932); Govet of India Act of 1935; Separation of Burma from India (1935).

World Depression (1929-33) and Ottawa Trade Agreements (1932-39).

Establishment of Indian Military Academy at Dehradun (1933); Creation of Royal India Navy (1934)

Linlithgow

(1936-43)

Resignation of Subhas Chandra Bose form Presidentship of Congress as well as from its membership; Formation of Forward Bloc by Bose (1939); Resignation of Congress Ministries (1939); celebration of resignation as ‘Deliverance Day’ By Muslims League (1939), and its Lahore Pakistan Resolution (March, 1940) (Jinnah’s Two-Nation) Theory); ‘Quit India’ Resolution by Congress at Bombay (8th August, 1942) arrest of all Congress leaders and outbreak of ‘August Revolution’ or Revolt of 1942.

Formation of Congress Provincial Ministries (1937); ‘August Offer’ by Linlithgow (
1940); its rejection by Congress and starting of individual satyagraha by Gandhi; Cripps Mission (March, 1942) offering Dominion Status to India, and its rejection by Congress.

Gandhi’s Basic or Wardha Scheme of Education (1937); Bengal Famine of 1942-43).

Escape of SC Bose from India in 1941.

Wavell

(1943-47)

C.R. Formula, Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944) and their failure; INA Trials and Naval Mutiny (1946); Lunching of ‘Direct Action Day’ by it also joined Interim Govt. in Oct. 1946, though it abstained from Constituent Assembly.

Wavell Plan, Simla Conference (1945) and its failure; Cabinet Mission and acceptance of its plan by both Congress and League (1946); Formation of Interim Government by Congress (Sep. 1946).

Sergent Education Report (1944); Communal Riots in Bengal (1946).

Reported death of SC Bose in plane crash (1945).

Mountbatten

(1947)

Mountbatten plan, partition of India and achievement of freedom.

India Independence Act of 1947.

Communal Riots in Punjab

JL Nehru became the first Indian PM.

 

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