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Geography of Madhya Pradesh


 

State of Madhya Pradesh can be sub-divided into three main physical divisions:Madhya Prdesh geography

  1.  Central or Middle Highland
  2.  Satpura and Maikal Ranges
  3.  Eastern Highland.

These major physical divisions can be further sub divided as follows:

Middle Highland

  1.  Central India Plateau
  2.  Malwa Plateau
  3.  Bundelkhand Highland
  4.  Rewa-Panna Plateau
  5. Narmada Valley

Satpura Maikal Ranges

  1.  Satpura-Maikal ranges
  2.  Maikal Plateau

Eastern Plateau

      1. Baghelkhand Plateau

Main Geographical features of the division

  • Central India plateau is a part of Vindhyan rock system. In the West it is separated by Aravalli Ranges. Bounded by Bundelkhand in the North-East, Aravalli in the West, Malwa Plateau in the South this region is known as Chambal semi-arid region. It is extended in Bhind, Morena, Shivpuri and Gwalior districts. Its gentle slope is towards North and North-East.
  • This division of central highland also consists of Vindhyan Escarpment, Bundelkhand Plateau, Plateau of Middle India, Malwa Plateau and Narmada-Son Valley.
  • Vindhyan Escarpment is triangular plateau region. Bhander and Kaimur escarpments are found in the south and southeast. The river Son flows in the south, in parallel with the Kaimur range. The northern boundary of the plateau is the Vindhyan escarpment.
  • In between East of Central India plateau and North of Rewa-Panna plateau is situated Bundelkhand plateau. This region is extended upto Chhatarpur, Panna, Tikamgarh and Datia districts of Madhya Pradesh and Jhansi, Lalitpur, Jalaun and Banda districts of Uttar Pradesh. Its gentle slope is towards North.
  • Malwa plateau starts from Vindhyan ranges situated in the North of Narmada Valley. It is extended to Mandsaur, Sagar and Guna districts in North and Eastern part. This plateau is made of Lava soil (Black) and is extended to Mandsaur, Ujjain, Dhar, Ratlam, Jhabua, Indore, Dewas, Sihore, Rajgarh, Guna, Bhopal districts, Chambal, Kali-Sindh, Parvati and Betwa are the important rivers of this region.
  • Rewa-Panna Plateau is known as Vindhyan Plateau its extension is in Rewa, Damoh, Satna and Panna districts. Black soil as well as Black and Red mixed soil is found at same places. Ken, Tons and Sonar are the important rivers of this region.
  • Land in between the valleys of Narmada and Son in the East and West of Madhya Pradesh is known as the land of Narmada-Son Valley. Narmada-Son Valley is lowest part (sea level) in Madhya Pradesh. Its maximum height is about 300 meter. It is a rift valley. In the valley of Narmada Deccan trap rocks are found.
  • Narmada-Son valley has the longest part in Madhya Pradesh, which is about 300 metres elevated from mean sea level. This is a narrow valley, which extends from the west to the northeast. Most of it is formed as an escarpment to the south of the Son valley. Flat land is also found in the Narmada valley, which is composed of dark black soil.
  • In the Eastern part of Western margin of Southern Madhya Pradesh lie Satpura and Maikal Plateau. This Satpura Maikal range can be divided into three parts—(i) Raj Pipala Range (ii) Satpura Range (iii) Maikal Range.
  • In Satpura range three eras of rocks are found. In the part of Chhindwara and Betul plateau crystalline Gneisser rocks of Pre Cambria period are found. In Gwaligarh and other extensive part Deccan trap socks are found. In northern part Gondwana rocks are found. In the South a belt of lower Gondwana rocks are found.
  • West Satpura range is narrow and steep slope land, which extends up to Gujarat and Burhanpur Pass on the western boundary. There are many hills found in this range. East Satpura range is quite broad. It starts from Burhanpur pass towards the east, and is further divided into several subdivisions.
  • The northern part of the Satpura range is quite broad. This part is called the plateau of Maikal. The eastern boundary is a crescent, which extends towards the south and this part is known as the Maikal Range. The average height is 900 metres. The upper layer of this range is plain.
  • This layer is covered with vegetation. The ground floor grasses are also grown in this layer. This range is the source of many streams, which flow in different directions. This range is made up of the Deccan Trap.
  • The Narmada and Son rivers originate from the Amarkantak plateau, which is part of this range. Geography of Madhya Pradesh also includes a moderate climate. Mostly residual soils are found in the state.
  • In the East of the river Son, in the Eastern part of Madhya Pradesh lays Baghelkhand plateau. It is rugged plateau. Its height is more than 150 meters. Rocks of Gondwana period are the characteristic of this area. Dense forests are found here. Due to dense forest wild animals are found here. Rice is the main crop of here.‚Äč

Geological Structure of Madhya Pradesh

  • Madhya Pradesh is made of rocks around the Archean period.
  • In Madhya Pradesh, rocks of Godwana period are found at two places-Satpura area and Bhaghelkhand  plateau where these rocks are extended in a Crescent form upto Sindhi in the North
  • Eastern part of this State is made of these rocks of Archean period
  •  Western part these rocks are known or called Vindhyan rock system and Deccan trap.
  • Dharwar rock system has been originated due to the erosion of Archean era rocks.
  • Bundelkhand granite is of Pink colour . It seems that extensive volcanic erruption took place in older Gneises. Which on the surface are found as a Bundelkhand Gneisses. 
  • Manganese of Balaghat and Marble of Jabalpur are found in the rocks of this system. These rocks are also effected by Orogenetic forces. Thus, faults and folds are also found.
  • In Jabalpur district crystalline dolomite limestone or marble is found which has been eroded by river Narmada and a narrow and deep Canyon has been formed. Iron deposits are found in Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and are of Dharwar system rocks in which Gneisses, Hematite and Quartize are important.
  • In Chhindwara the Dharwar rock system is known as Sauser series in which the manganese deposits are found. 
  • Upper part of the lower Cuddapha rock sysem is known as Bijawar Series in which the layers of Limestone, Sandstone, Hematite and Quartize are found.
  • Rocks of this system are found near Bijawar, Gwalior and Panna in which same diamonds are found off volcanic erruption. Famous diamond mines of Panna are in this system.
  • Aqueous rocks of Vindhyan system are saved due to inter Geologic forces. These rocks are found horizontally nearly 4200 meter thick in Northern Madhya Pradesh.
  • Rocks of Dharwar system found in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts of Southern Madhya Pradesh which are extended upto Maharashtra State in East. A narrow long belt of these rocks is found parallel to the South of Sone river and a small piece of land is also found around Bijawar in between Bundelkhand Gneisses and Vindhyan rocks.
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